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style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">如何预防和改善土壤板结?</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">中国80%的土壤存在板结状况,导致肥料越施越多,增产越来越少。越来越多的肥料被土壤固定,作物无法吸收利用,造成土壤肥力低下。是什么原因造成了中国土壤板结?我们平时应该怎么做才能预防和改善呢?</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">什么是土壤板结ï¼?/span><span style="font-size:14px;">土壤板结是指土壤表层在外因作用下结构破坏、土料分散,而干燥后受内聚力作用的现象,是农业生产上经常碰到的问题。土壤的团粒结构是土壤肥力的重要指标,土壤团粒结构的破坏致使土壤保水、保肥能力及通透性降低,造成土壤板结ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">土壤板结原因</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">一、有机质含量ä½?/span><span style="font-size:14px;">有机肥使用少,有机质含量低,会影响微生物的活性,从而影响土壤团粒结构的形成,导致土壤板结ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">二、长期单一使用化肥,忽视生物肥、有机肥的使ç”?/span><span style="font-size:14px;">(1)氮肥过量。向土壤中过量施入氮肥后,微生物的氮素供应增åŠ?份,相应消耗的碳素就增åŠ?5份,所消耗的碳素来源于土壤有机质,有机质含量低,影响微生物的活性,从而影响土壤团粒结构的形成,导致土壤板结ã€?/span><span style="font-size:14px;">(2)磷肥过量。磷肥中的磷酸根离子与土壤中钙、镁等阳离子结合形成难溶性磷酸盐,既浪费磷肥,又破坏了土壤团粒结构,致使土壤板结ã€?/span><span style="font-size:14px;">(3)钾肥过量。钾离子能将形成土壤团粒结构的多价阳离子置换出来,而一价的钾离子不具有键桥作用,土壤团粒结构的键桥被破坏了,也就破坏了团粒结构,致使土壤板结ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">三、地表水资源缺乏,利用矿化度高、水温低的地下水浇水ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">四、风沙、水土流失,表土层细小的土壤颗粒被带走,使土壤结构遭到破坏ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">五、土壤的酸碱性过大或过小。如下酸雨ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">六、塑料制品未完全溶解。如塑料地膜等没有及时清ç?在土壤中无法完全被分解ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">七、农田土壤质地太粘,耕作层浅ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">土壤板结的危害:</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">1、影响根系发育:在土壤板结的情况下,因缺氧而导致根系活力下降,不能正常发育,植物根部细胞呼吸减弱,而氮素等营养又多以离子态存在,吸收时要消耗细胞代谢产生的能量,呼吸减弱,故能量供应不足,影响养分的吸收ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">2、导致缺素症:缺素症有时并不一定就是土壤中缺少这种元素,而是因为土壤板结、土壤酸碱度不适宜、或者是土壤水分供应不均衡等一系列问题引起的根部吸收能力下降导致的ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">如何预防土壤板结ï¼?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">1、增施有机肥。增施厩肥、圈肥、土杂肥以及利用作物秸秆沤制优质有机肥,以增加土壤中有机质含量,促进土壤团粒结构的形成,预防土壤板结ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">2、增施微生物肥料。微生物的分泌物能溶解土壤中的磷酸盐,将磷、钾释放出来,以键桥形式恢复团粒结构,消除土壤板结ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">3、实行喷灌。或提倡利用夏季多储雨水,充分利用地表水。有条件的也可利用深井水ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">4、秸秆还田。秸杆还田可减少不必要的土壤流失,以保护土壤结构不遭破坏ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">5、释放蚯蚓ã€?/span> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;line-height:2;">总之,土壤板结危害大,农民朋友们在种植作物时,一定要注意土壤的养护,多施有机肥、微生物肥料等,改善土壤板结,增加土壤肥力ã€?/span> </p></p></div> <p><div>上一æ?<a 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